Pretty much everything you need to know about the Safavid Dynasty revolves around one of two things: 1. The Safavid Empire reached its zenith under Shah Abbas the Great of Persia (reigned 1588–1629), who ruled with an iron fist. Classes and rank King and Royal class Nobles, Religious officials Merchants, Peasants, Commoners Family Structure. Before the Safavid empire took power most of the Iranian population were Sunni. Books: Baker, Patricia L. “Safavid Splendor.” In Islamic Textiles. “The Hall of Forty Columns” was famous for its glazed tiles. In other cases, the European works provided new technical devices, which local artists combined with elements of traditional Persian painting. When the Safavid capital was established in Isfahan in 1598, Armenian textile workers were relocated to the neighborhood of New Julfa, in close proximity to Shah Abbas' palatial complex. The exceptional quality of woven textiles during this era resides in the designs. “Menswear evolved along similar lines, in that the outer robe became more fitted and often included a fur collar and a lining. Studies on Isfahan. Bier, Carol The Persian Velvets at Rosenborg. His work set the tone for much of the seventeenth century, as his students used it as a springboard for developing their own styles (1974.290.43). Although the Safavids are of Iranian origin, they claimed they were descended from the prophet Muhammad. This capital was a piece of art itself that reflected the culture and creativity of the society. Headwear for women around 1600 consisted of a square cloth or chahar-qad, placed on the crown of the head and fastened with a thin ribbon of silk, and sometimes accompanied by a chin strap made of a string of pearls or gems. Artists from the Qara Quyunlu, Aq Quyunlu, and Timurid court studios were brought together and their work helped form a new Safavid style of painting. : Society for Iranian Studies, 1974. [Source: Suzan Yalman, New York University, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, metmuseum.org \^/], “The most distinguished of Safavid rulers and the greatest patron of the arts was Shah Abbas (r. 1587–1629). Glimpses of Safavid Fashion in the Sixteenth Century.” In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran, edited by Sheila Canby and Jon Thompson, pp. The dynasty’s founder, Shah Isma‘il, and his supporters traced their lineage to Shaikh Safi of Ardabil, a Sufi theologian whose successors gained religious and political authority throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. \^/, “Compound weave structures incorporating gold or silver strips or metal-wrapped threads floating on the face of the cloth (26.231.2), referred to as "brocades," added a sumptuous quality to the sophisticated palette of pistachio green, salmon pink, alizarin, cream, and ochre. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. Complex designs were created using the lampas technique, a compound structure that allowed for figural and floral designs to be produced in fluid lines with a range of delicate colors. New York: Abrams, 2000.Chardin, Sir John Travels in Persia. Shah Ismail and Shah Tahmasp for example were poets and painters. Conquest and ongoing cultural interaction also fueled the development of another empire known as the Safavids. Exhibition catalogue.. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1998; Dickson, Martin Bernard, and Stuart Cary Welch The Houghton Shahnama. Loose, ankle-length trousers peek out from beneath a chemise or pirahan falling straight to the knees for men, and mid-calf for women. From the old Seljuk city center he built a two-kilometer-long bazaar to a new town square called the Maidan-i Shah, located to the south near the Zaianda River. A special form of land use in the Safavid empire was the so-called yÅ«rd (Doerfer, Elemente II, pp. Plus, they are further outcast by the fact that the Mughals and Ottomans are Sunni; the Safavids are Shi’a. The textile industry consisted of urban workshops producing textiles independently, provincial centers focusing on rug weaving, and small farms cultivating silk in the Caspian region. It was regarded as the ultimate signifier of political allegiance. Since the Safavid empire spent a lot of their efforts to grow Shi'a Islam they spent tons of money to support this. All this finery was draped loosely in an enveloping veil or chador covering the body and lower face when venturing beyond the inner sanctum or andarun of the home. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987. Designers were experts in calculating the mathematical sequence determining which warp threads would appear on the surface of the cloth, assisted by a helper boy, as the master weaver executed the process on the loom. Likewise, it was customary to wear new clothing at weddings and other celebrations throughout the year. The early 17th century in Persia was a golden age of Islamic art and architecture—especially in Isfahan. The charming ensemble is finished with ankle boots or slip-on shoes of black or white leather, often sporting a Cuban heel. Suzan Yalman of New York University wrote: “In the arts, manuscript illustration was prominent in royal patronage. ... Art mixed together Persian and European culture, most well shown in their carpets. 3. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. In order to revive the national economy, Abbas courted foreign traders and made commercial agreements with several European nations. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … He also brought members of Christian religious orders into the empire. Because of the new Shi'a empire and mandatory conversion Sunni neighbors, like the Ottomans, attacked the Safavid Empire. The leader was Esma'il. Great palaces and gardens were built in Isfahan. \^/, “Shah Abbas was also an active patron of painting and book production. London: James Barrie, 1953.Canby, Sheila R. The Golden Age of Persian Art, 1501–1722. In the paintings, the outermost garment for both men and women consists of a long robe that alternately crosses over in the front and fastens to one side, or parts down the front. Textiles were executed as continuous repeat patterns by master designers (nakhshband), with the ultimate goal of obscuring the edges of the repeat block. The overall look for men in some cases was more elaborate than that of women, as male ostentation was considered more acceptable by cultural standards. \^/, “Another effect of the economic boom was the creation of a new class of patrons. Isfahan had one of the largest with a population of one million. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. Because of the new Shi'a empire and mandatory conversion Sunni neighbors, like the Ottomans, attacked the Safavid Empire. [Source:Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/]. \^/, “Persian garments fashioned from these luxurious silk textiles are considered the epitome of the Safavid style. [Source: Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, , Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/], “Under the reign of Shah Tahmasp (1524–76), royal workshops were established primarily to service the court, while raw silk continued to be produced and sold to the state by independent producers from northern provinces such as Gilan. The importance of clothing within Perso-Islamic culture is enhanced by cultural practices. In 1597–98, Shah Abbas transferred his capital to Isfahan, in southern Iran, where he built a new city alongside the old one. Most of the extant poetry of … As the Safavids set up their capital cities of Tabriz, Qazvin, and finally Isfahan, the textile industry became centralized and was swiftly incorporated into the national economy, creating an expansive revenue stream. McCabe, Ina Baghdiantz The Shah’s Silk for Europe’s Silver: The Eurasian Trade of the Julfa Armenians in Safavid Iran and India (1530–1750). Paintings depict opulently dressed youths languishing in a state of mystic ecstasy, while epigraphic silk textiles recount verses of Sufi poetry. Among the most scenic quarters was the area behind the Ali Qapu, where a series of gardens extended to the Chahar Bagh, a long boulevard lined with parks, the residences of nobles, and the palaces of the royal family. Books: Holod, Renata, ed. During the expansion of the empire, the Safavid regime closely resembled the Aqquyunlu and Timurid regimes that it supplanted. Shah Ismail I himself wrote many poems in Azerbaijani, as well as in Persian and Arabic, while Shah Tahmasp was a painter. Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Safavid textiles are praised as the pinnacle of Iranian loom weaving. 5. Although he was heir to a very traditional form of painting, Riza introduced a new set of subjects to the Persian oeuvre (50.164). Persian artists created great miniature painting, carpets, tapestries, metal work. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. Abbas also created a new standing army which halted the encroachments of the Mughals and the Ottomans and restabilized the country's territories. The empire demonstrated cultural blending from the mix of Europeans, Chinese, and Persians. The edges of the outer robe are depicted tucked into a belt made of strips of leather, connected by floral-shaped metal fastenings. The initial Ottoman-Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and Women’s attire, as depicted by Chardin and in surviving garments, consists of a tailored jacket with tight sleeves and open to mid-chest, where it was cinched to the waistline with several fastenings along a central front seam. Ghiyath was best known for his small-scale figural and floral designs, and enjoyed a privileged relationship with the court of Shah Abbas. \^/, “After the death of Shah Abbas in 1629, the Safavid dynasty began to lose central power and regional governance relegated the monarch to the position of a figurehead. His commission of a Shahnama reestablished the royal painting atelier that had shrunk during the reigns of his two predecessors. Abbas the Great helped create a Safavid culture and Golden Age. \^/, “The woven figural motifs featured on outer garments for men often depicted characters from Persian literature, such as poet Nizami’s Layla and Majnun or Khusrau and Shirin (1978.60), endowing the wearer with an affinity for the qualities of these protagonists. In addition, the state regained control of ports in the Persian Gulf from Portuguese occupation, facilitating maritime trade and rerouting silk trade away from areas under Ottoman jurisdiction. In this period, handicrafts such as tile making, pottery, and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature paintin… Shah Abbas helped create a Safavid culture. Turks living in Persia started the Safavid Empire in modern-day Iran and Iraq. The capital of the Safavid empire was Isfahan, founded in 1501. Carpet weaving was transformed from a craft practiced by nomads and peasants into a national industry, with designs drafted by professional artists in the court workshops (50.190.1). In pottery, imitations of ceramics from Iznik in Turkey and of blue-and-white ware from China were especially popular, and the native technique of lusterware was revived (30.95.158). Copenhagen: De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling, 1995. What was probably the most important result of Western influence on the Safavid Empire? The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. When the Safavid Empire took power it established Shi'a Islam as Iran’s official religion. When the Safavids came to power at the turn of the sixteenth century, the Iranian textile industry was already well developed in the production and sale of woven silk textiles and rugs as well as raw silk for export. In what ways do the arts reflect innovation adaptation, and creativity of the society? The most important decisions made by the Safavid Empire when it came into power was declaring the state religion as Shi’ism. Four commanding structures were ranged on the sides of this square: an entrance to the bazaar painted with murals depicting Abbas' victories over the Uzbeks on the north, the Shah Mosque (1611–66) on the south, the Mosque of Shaykh Lutfallah (1603–19) on the east, and the Ali Qapu, a two-story audience hall, on the west. Hair was worn long and collected into multiple braids, adorned at the ends with silver or gold ornaments. The height of Safavid style, however, remains immortalized in garments and fragments in the Metropolitan Museum’s collection.” \^/. Safavid dress is characterized by innovative color combinations, distinctive figural motifs on fabrics, and rich texture due to the extensive use of gold- and silver-wrapped threads. Who was the leader of safavid empire? It also had 163 mosques, 48 religious schools, 1801 shops and 263 public baths. Semi-nude women, languid youths, and lovers soon came to replace the heroes of the Shahnama and the Khamsa in many an artist's repertoire. Fabrics were another major industry; travelers Jean Chardin and Jean-Baptiste Tavernier both described silk-weaving factories in the cities of Yazd and Kashan, and the production of velvet increased as it became highly fashionable (59.58).\^/, “In the seventeenth century, adventurous traders and ambassadors sent by foreign kings came to Iran bearing works of art as presents to Persian high officials. The dynasty began as a Sufi order but evolved into a major gunpowder empire. But the legacy lives on in the state that exists today and also in the culture of the Safavids - literature, architecture, art and poetry, seen particularly in Isfahan, a capital of the empire for a period. Their capitals were Tabriz, Qazvin, Isfahan. Art and Culture When the Safavid Empire began its rule over Persia, Persia became a great center of art and culture. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Shah ‘Abbas’ reputation as a ruler vacillated between that of a worldly king and a religious shaikh, and the arts during his reign reflect this duality. The capital of the Safavid empire was Isfahan, founded in 1501. London: British Museum Press, 2002; Diba, Layla S., ed. The Safavid Empire, based in Persia (), ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736.Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent and belonged to a unique order of Sufi -infused Shi'a Islam called Safaviyya. \^/, “Textiles on the loom are produced by the intersection of warp threads, held taut, and weft threads, which are interwoven to create different patterns on the surface of the cloth. Though Shah Ismacil is known to have built throughout the empire, only modest buildings survive from his reign. The glory days of Isfahan came to an end in 1722 when the city was besieged by one of the Afghan tribes then in rebellion against the Safavids, and the dynasty, for all intents and purposes, ceased to rule.” \^/. The many prints, illustrated books, and oil paintings they brought provided new inspiration for artists in Iran. 6. During the early Safavid period under the reigns of Shah Isma‘il I (r. 1501–24) and his son, Shah Tahmasp (r. 1524–76), court fashions were evident in the detailed paintings in the Shahnama of Tahmasp and other illustrated royal manuscripts. The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. These two identities of shaikh and king come together under the ruler’s imperative to solidify Iran’s position in international trade, while also maintaining his commitment to Safavid ideology. Safavid Art and Architecture. The Safavid Empire ruled in Persia from the 16th century to the 18th century. His successors were ill-prepared to rule and cities such as Shiraz rose to prominence as regional rulers became more powerful. \^/, “After Abbas' death in 1629, both the Safavid state and its capital suffered. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. The three main exports of Iran were silk, carpets, and textiles. He increased carpet and textile production in state workshops and settled 300 Chinese potters and their families in Iran to capitalize on the vogue for Chinese ceramics. Chestnut Hill, Mass. ), in which a Qezelbāš tribe was granted a defined territory for its migration routes. Atlanta: Scholar’s Press, 1999.Thompson, Jon, Daniel Shaffer, and Pirjetta Mildh, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995. Their religious… He also had the fifteenth-century Timurid manuscript Mantiq al-tair (The Language of the Birds) refurbished; four paintings were added and the manuscript presented to the shrine at Ardabil in 1609. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. Books: Canby, Sheila R. Persian Painting. decline of the empire. The dynasty spent much money and effort on the building of bridges, roads, and caravansaries to encourage trade. Shenasa, Nazanin Hedayat “Donning the Cloak: Safavid Silks and the Display of Identity.” Master’s thesis, San Jose State University, http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4417&context=etd_theses.. n/a: n/a, n/a. How did Isma’il help the Safavids rise to power? Safavid dynasty, ruling dynasty of Iran from 1501 to 1736, known especially for its architectural achievements and its establishment of Twelver Shi‘ism among various ethnic and linguistic groups throughout Iran as a major unifying factor. It also had 163 mosques, 48 religious schools, 1801 shops and 263 public baths. Lampas-woven textiles were used in garments and furnishings (1972.189). Under the Safavids, Turkish was the language of the armies, Persian was the language of administration and culture and Arabic was the language or religion and law. Drawing inspiration from designs generated in the royal painting workshop, textiles and carpets were manufactured of luxury materials as furnishings for the court. Woven from the Soul, Spun from the Heart: Textile Arts of Safavid and Qajar Iran, 16th–:19th Centuries. CULTURE WITHIN THE SAFAVID FAMILY. "It was the last time Iran stood tall and was a proud independent country before the coming of the westerners, the imperialists. London: British Museum Press, 1995. These workshops were an innovative adaptation to meet the needs of the increasing attention to art and trade during this period. In In the seventeenth century, Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) centralized the Iranian economy by developing a state monopoly over the silk trade, controlling production in the Caspian provinces, where the bulk of the raw material was produced. 1747- The Safavid dynasty and his rule comes to an end after its reign from 1502 to 1747. During his rule the Ottoman army was defeated in the early 17th century. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. Paris: Harmattan, 1999. Ismacil's son, Tahmasp (r. 1524–76), who had been trained in painting at an early age, was an active patron of the arts of the book. This local textile industry included dyers, weavers, and embroiderers producing luxury textiles mainly for export under the supervision of the state. \^/, “As the dynasty came to a close in the early eighteenth century, fashions and textiles reflect the declining regime. After 1625, however, women are depicted in paintings and on textiles wearing a loose veil fastened with a small tiara or decorative silk ribbon tied behind the head. Textile production in court-sponsored workshops declined, while the private sector of the textile industry regained independence, producing silks for the expanding international demand. Suzan Yalman of New York University wrote: “In 1597–98, Isfahan became the new capital of Iran when Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) moved the Safavid government there as part of his larger plan to lift the country from the slump into which it had fallen. 132 ff. New York: Asia Society. Safavid Interaction with the Ottomans Common traits The history of Persian-Ottoman relations started with the establishment of Safavid dynasty in the Persian Empire in the early 16th century. A number of the artists in their employ were migrants from the Safavid Empire, leading to cultural exchange between the two empires. Often these are worn beneath a short-sleeved robe, emphasizing the contrasting colors of the trousers and chemise in lapis blue, emerald green, and tomato red. Soiled clothing was cause for immediate removal and replacement, and frequent washing surely led to fading of luxury garments, which were later cut and sold for the value of the silk and metal threads. The stories are represented as scenes repeated within a foliate or rectilinear framework, often accompanied by poetry. The Ottoman attacks on the Safavid empire resulted in Shah Tahmasp I, Ismail I son and successor, moving the capital from Tabriz to the city of Qazvin, an interior city, in 1548. Tile panels and frescoes from the pavilions of the Chahar Bagh in the Museum's collection are examples of the lavish decoration of these structures. Welch, Anthony. The four bases of the Safavid state—religion, trade, military, and the royal family itself—were thus united in one monumental visual statement.\^/, “Jean Chardin, a French jeweler who traveled throughout Iran in 1664–70 and again in 1671–77, exclaimed that Isfahan was "the greatest and most beautiful town in the whole Orient." In 1501 the Safavid empire declared its … In addition, artists were no longer dependent on the royal workshop for employment. Creation, expansion and interaction of Economic Systems, Development and Transformation of Social Structures, Interactions between Humans and the Enviroment. Exhibition catalogue. Royal Persian Paintings: The Qajar Epoch, 1785–1925. The Safavid Empire (1502-1736) was a Persian military state that dominated the region for two centuries and initiated one of Persia's golden ages. He counted 162 mosques, 48 colleges, 1,802 caravanserais, 273 baths, and 12 cemeteries, indicating Abbas' extensive architectural work in the city. … Great Safavid painters Bihzad (d. 1535) and Riza-i Abbari (d 1635) produced surrealist miniatures. These fashionable figures were also copied in textiles, figural tile panels, and other media. Consistent with earlier fashions, a chemise and ankle-length trousers are worn underneath the ensemble, culminating in a pointed-toe slip-on shoe. 2 vols. The Safavid empire was very closely linked to the Mughal Empire in India. Metropolitan Museum of Art, metmuseum.org \^/], “The role of Iran as a major participant in a larger economy created by the European commercial expansion of the sixteenth century was another influence in the arts of this era. The centerpiece of his capital was the new Maidan-i Shah (Royal Square), which was conceived and constructed initially for state ceremonies and sports. The art of painting continued to flourish, with single-page paintings and drawings becoming more popular than manuscript illustration. Over the next several decades, major monuments would be erected on three sides of the Royal Square by Abbas and his successors. While women are depicted rarely in these figural silks, floral designs depicting the rose and nightingale (gul-o-bul-bul) (26.231.2) and similar motifs are abundant. May 29, 1555 . From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identityof the regio… \^/. From the last quarter of the seventeenth century until the dynasty's end following the Afghan invasion in 1722, there was a marked change in the textiles produced as Iranian weavers stepped down their aesthetic and working methods to suit the tastes and economy of the declining regime.” \^/. The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. Fashion in the Golden Era of Shah ‘Abbas (1587–1625), Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “The true flowering of Persian art across all disciplines occurred under the patronage of Shah ‘Abbas I (r. 1587–1625). Album pages by Riza-yi ‘Abbasi, court painter for Shah ‘Abbas, depict lovers and youths dressed in loose, layered clothing with vibrant patterns. Silk velvets (12.72.5) were produced either as continuous pile, creating a supple and luxurious cloth, or manipulated by selectively weaving areas with pile and leaving other areas as flat weaves, creating a "voided" effect (52.20.13). Women are depicted wearing a small square kerchief (chahar-qad) at the crown of the head tied over longer flowing headscarves. The basic elements of the outer robe, chemise, and trousers from the early period are still seen a century later; however, the belted robes are now accentuated by wide, gold-embellished sashes. Culture flourished under Safavid patronage. Islamic culture The Ottoman Empire rose to power from various groups of Western Oghuz Turks from Central Asia. Although many of the richly woven silk garments of the period are only accessible now as fragments, the tailored shapes suggest that they were once part of the decorative garments worn throughout Iran and sent as diplomatic gifts to Europe and India. Floral designs are often presented within a lattice framework, accompanied by birds and foliate designs. The production of artistic goods became hugely profitable and Abbas had a large hand in encouraging the growth of local crafts. [Source: Suzan Yalman, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/], “Abbas reinforced the image of the Safavid polity with the architecture of his new capital. [Source:Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org\^/], “Centralizing the distribution of raw silk under state control as an important source of revenue, ‘Abbas encouraged the production and sale of high-end silk lampas and velvet textiles for apparel and home furnishings by workshops in Yazd, Kashan, and his new capital at Isfahan. Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com, Central Asian Topics - Sassanids, Samanids, Turkic Groups, Safavids. Abbas II (r. 1642–66) added the Chihil Sutun, a pavilion with large-scale wall paintings of historical and literary subjects, to the royal complex in Isfahan. The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. powerful empires and several strong regional states brought a steady rise in power and culture over a long period of time. These designs range from interlocking overall patterns to single repeating motifs arranged in rows (33.80.18), and their depiction in album pages reflects their popularity among the Iranian gentry as well as European aristocrats. T. avids spent money to promote religion by using grants to build shrines and religious schools. Persian artists created great miniature painting, carpets, tapestries, metal work. They are wedged between the Wealthiest empire of this period (the Mughals) and the longest lasting empire of all time (the Ottomans). As a result, single-page paintings, less costly than fully illustrated manuscripts, became popular. Peace of Amasya, singed between Shah Tahmasp and Suleiman the Magnificent, ends Ottoman–Safavid War and gives most of Iraq, including Baghdad, to the Ottoman Empire, while the Persians retain north-western territories in the Caucasus Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Turkic verse with the pen name of Tani.Shah Abbas I recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts—artisan's products provided much of Iran's foreign trade. The carpets and textiles were created in workshops set up under state patronage. The great days of Safavid art were over, however, and Iran was heading in new directions.”. Text references and scattered remains indicate that Shah Tahmasp also sponsored numerous building projects, particularly at Qazvin, his capital after 1555, but little survives. London: British Museum Press, 1993; Canby, Sheila R., ed. Ismail I, the first shah of the Safavids, made the conversion to Shi'a from Sunni mandatory and even had the Sunni Scholars killed or executed. Accessories included elaborate jewelry and delicately embroidered purses (29.23.24). Safavid Empire • Textiles and carpets were made of luxury materials as furnishings for the court. Private workshops in urban centers such as Yazd and Kashan continued to produce textiles for sale within and beyond Iranian borders, and are especially known for velvet and lampas-woven luxury silks.\^/, “Figural designs relied heavily on manuscript illustration for composition and subject matter. Silks, tiles, and other goods that were produced in the Safavid Empire were praised from many different empires. Modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting were all adopted by Persian artists but were employed in depictions of familiar subjects or in combination with traditional conventions. The growth of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires helped place Islamic culture into global recognition. Outer garments are made of sumptuous floral silk textiles atop decorative layers, while the innermost garments are unadorned white cotton meant for frequent washings. Culture in the Safavid Empire Famous for tile, glass, and metal wares Textile production Embroidered clothing and tapestries as well as carpets–in high demand in Europe Wool (every day use) and silk (fine production) Illuminated manuscripts and Persian minatures Portraits, scenes from epic poems and stories, everyday life \^/, “These legendary characters are often represented on textiles in contemporary Safavid dress, with men sporting turbans wound around a central oblong baton (taj haydari) (52.20.11). Much of the splendor of Safavid garments is inherent in the textiles used to fashion the external garments. Center of art and culture over a long period of time a great center of art wrote: in... 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